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Algeria

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Notre Dame d'Afrique, a Roman Catholic Basilica in Algiers, Algeria

Algerian Currency

Algerian Dinar (DZD)

The Capital of Algeria

Algiers

Time Zone in Algeria

GMT + 1

Important Facts About the Country of Algeria

Introduction to Algeria

Algeria, officially known as the People’s Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a North African country situated on the Mediterranean coast. Covering an area of approximately 2.38 million square kilometers, it stands as the largest country in Africa and the tenth largest globally. Algiers, the capital city, serves as the political, economic and cultural center of the country. The country has a population of over 44 million people.

What to Know about Algeria's Geography

Algeria shares borders with several countries, including Tunisia and Libya to the northeast, Niger to the southeast, Mali and Mauritania to the southwest, Western Sahara and Morocco to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north. The country’s geography is characterized by vast deserts, mountain ranges and a lengthy Mediterranean coastline. The Sahara Desert, covering a significant portion of Algeria, contributes to its unique landscapes and climatic regions.

Climate in Algeria

Algeria experiences diverse climatic conditions owing to its vast expanse and geographical features. The northern coastal regions have a Mediterranean climate, with mild, wet winters and hot, dry summers. The southern regions, dominated by the Sahara Desert, have a semi-arid and arid desert climate, with extremely hot summers and minimal rainfall.

The Culture of Algeria

Algeria’s culture is a blend of indigenous Berber traditions and Arab-Islamic influences. Family, community and hospitality are highly valued in Algerian society, with traditional customs and social gatherings playing an essential role in daily life. Algerian music, including Raï and Chaabi, is popular both within the country and across the Maghreb region.

Religions Observed in Algeria

Islam is the dominant religion in Algeria, with over 95% of the population adhering to Sunni Islam. Islamic practices and traditions influence various aspects of Algerian life, including family dynamics, cultural celebrations and social norms.

Languages Spoken in Algeria

Arabic is the official language in Algeria, serving as the medium of communication in government, education and media. Furthermore, Berber languages such as Kabyle and Chaouia are officially recognized and widely spoken, especially in rural regions, by a significant portion of the population. Due to Algeria’s colonial past, French maintains significant usage in the realms of business, administration and higher education.

Algerian Human Resources at a Glance

Employment Law Protections in Algeria

The Labor Code serves as the primary legal framework governing employment relationships in Algeria. Additionally, there are other important rules and regulations that play a significant role, such as the Constitution, laws defining legal holidays, laws regulating social security, etc.

Employment Contracts in Algeria

In Algeria, an employment contract can either be oral or written. There are two types of employment contracts: fixed-term contracts and permanent contracts.

In the absence of a written employment contract, the employment relationship is assumed to exist for an unlimited period.

Fixed Term Contacts for Algerian Employees

In Algerian, it is allowed to conclude an employment contract for a limited period of full-time or part-time in the cases provided for below:

  • When the worker is employed to carry out work related to non-renewable contracts of works or services
  • When it comes to succeeding a fixed worker in a position he or she was temporarily absent from, and the employee must keep the job position
  • When it is required of the employing body to carry out periodic works of an intermittent nature
  • When justified by increased work or seasonal reasons
  • When it comes to activities or works of limited duration or temporary by nature

Fixed-term contracts must accurately show the duration of the employment relationship, and the reasons for the prescribed period.

There is no limit on the maximum length or the number of renewals regarding fixed-term contracts.

Algeria's Guidelines Regarding Probation Period/Trial Period

The probation period can be up to six months and this period can be increased to 12 months for highly qualified individuals.

During the trial period, the employee is entitled to the same rights and responsibilities as other employees in similar positions. Furthermore, this period will be considered in determining their seniority with the organization if they are officially hired at the end of the trial period.

Either party can terminate the employment relationship without compensation or prior notice during the probation period.

Regulations and Rules Regarding Working Hours in Algeria

The normal working hours are 40 hours a week, divided into five working days. All employees are entitled to at least one day of rest per week. The normal weekly rest under normal working conditions is on Friday.

The working hours shall not exceed 12 hours per day in any case.

Algerian Laws Regarding Overtime

Overtime hours must not exceed 20% of the regular working hours.

If an employee is required to work additional hours, they are entitled to receive overtime pay that is at least 150% of their regular hourly wage. Additionally, if an employee must work on their scheduled day off, they must be given a replacement day off and compensated at a rate of 150% for the overtime worked.

Termination

An employer in Algeria can only terminate a contract for two reasons:

  • Gross misconduct
  • Economic Justification

Terminating fixed-term contracts before the end of their term will result in compensation for the remainder of the contract.

Termination for economic reasons in Algeria requires the employer to take the appropriate actions to limit the number of terminations, such as:

  • Reduced working hours
  • Implementation of part-time work
  • Procedure for retiring personnel
  • Transferring employees to other company sectors where they can develop (those who refuse will be provided a severance package)

Algeria's Requirements Regarding Notice Periods

Workers who are terminated for reasons other than grave misconduct are eligible for a designated leave period, the minimum duration of which is established through collective agreements or conventions. Throughout this leave period, the terminated employee is entitled to two hours per day of paid time, which can accumulate, for the purpose of seeking new employment opportunities in Algeria.

Alternatively, the employer can fulfill the obligation of providing the leave period by compensating the terminated employee with an amount equivalent to the total remuneration they would have received during the same timeframe.

Redundancy/Severance Pay in Algeria

In terms of redundancy allowances, the employer shall pay an amount equal to three months’ salary to any employee who is subject to downsizing and receives unemployment insurance benefits.

This payment is calculated based on the average gross monthly wage earned for the 12 months preceding the termination.

Employees who are terminated as part of a workforce reduction and are compensated by a job, or admission to retirement or early retirement, are not entitled to any compensation other than that due to them for paid leave.

Employees will not be compensated if they are terminated for gross misconduct.

Tax and Social Security Information for Employers in Algeria

Personal Income Tax in Algeria

In Algeria, the personal income tax is calculated at the progressive rates below:

Annual Taxable Income (DZD) Tax Rate %
Less than 240,000 0
240,001 to 480,000 23%
480,001 to 960,000 27%
960,001 to 1,920,000 30%
1,920,001 to 3,840,000 33%
More than 3,840,000 35%

This taxable income, however, receives a proportional 40% rebate on the global income tax. The rebate cannot be less than DZD 12,000 per year or more than DZD 18,000 per year (approximately DZD 1,000 to DZD 1,500 per month).

The tax rate on bonus payments is 15%.

The deadline to remit returns and payments to the DGI (‘Directeur Général des Impôts’) in Algeria is by the 20th of the following month. Meanwhile, the annual tax declaration must be filed by April 30 of each year.

Social Security in Algeria

In Algeria, social security is regulated by the CNAS (‘Caisse Nationale des Assurances Sociales des travailleurs salaries’), employers and employees are obligated to make the following contributions (percentage of the employee gross salary):

  • Employer: 26%
  • Employee: 9%

The contribution by employees is withheld and remitted by the employer. The deadline for employers to remit payments to the CNAS authority is the end of the following month.

*The above rates serve as a broad guideline. Actual rates charged will differ.

Important Information for Algerian Employees

Salary Payment

The law mandates that employees shall be paid regularly and the wage shall not be lower than the national guaranteed minimum wage.

Annual Leave

Algeria’s leave cycle runs from July 1 to June 30. The leave cycle begins on the first day of work for new employees. Employees are entitled to 2.5 days of annual leave every month, up to a maximum of 30 days per year of employment. Employees in the southern states shall be granted an additional 10 days of annual leave per year.

During the annual leave, no employment relationships may be suspended or terminated.

Following the occurrence of illness, the employee is authorized to suspend annual leave in order to benefit from sick leave and the rights associated with it.

Sick Leave

Employees are entitled to 15 days of paid sick leave at half salary beginning on the first day of sick leave and at full salary beginning on the 16th day of illness or earlier if hospitalized.

Sick pay and the reimbursement of medical expenses are funded by the National Fund for Social Security, which is comprised of employer and employee contributions.

Maternity & Parental Leave

Maternity Leave

Female employees are entitled to a maximum of 14 weeks of fully paid maternity leave and they must stop working at least one week before their due date if they have worked the following hours:

  • At least nine days or 60 hours in the three preceding months, or
  • 36 days or 240 hours in the 12 months preceding the first medical recognition of pregnancy

A recognized doctor or qualified professional must have assisted with the birth in order to obtain maternity pay.

Paternity Leave

Male employees are entitled to three days of paid paternity (emergency) leave for the birth of a child.

Special Leave

Employees are entitled to three days of paid leave for the following family events:

  • Marriage of the employee
  • Birth of the employee’s child
  • Circumcision of the employee’s child
  • Marriage of the employee’s descendant
  • Death of the employee’s immediate family member or blood relative
  • Death of employee’s spouse

Once in their entire professional life, an employee is allowed to take 30 days’ paid leave to perform Hajj.

Public Holidays

Typically, there are 11 public holidays annually in Algeria. Employees receive full pay on those public holidays.

Rules Regarding Visas and Foreign Workers in Algeria

General Information

Visas

Most visitors to Algeria require a visa, which can be obtained at Algerian diplomatic offices unless they are from visa-free countries.

Only a few nations, regardless of travel intent, have visa-free entrance into Algeria for up to 90 days. This excludes Israeli citizens, who are forbidden from entering even in transit.

A visa – such as a tourist, business, transit, work or student visa – must be obtained in person from an Algerian consulate or embassy before travel. The duration and validity of these visas vary depending on the purpose of the visit.

Foreign nationals may apply for short-term visas to Algeria for a variety of reasons (tourist, business, cultural and other short-term purposes). If they need to stay in Algeria for an extended period of time (for example, to study or work), they can apply for Algeria long-term visas.

Work Permits

A foreign employee will need an Algeria work visa and work permit to work legally. Employees who need to work in Algeria for less than 90 days can apply for a temporary work visa. If the job is long-term, they must apply for a work visa.

When applying for a working visa in Algeria, applicants must provide a copy of their work contract. The local employer should supply a letter outlining the employee’s work title, position, and reason for visiting the country. The employer should also specify in the letter that they would cover the employee’s living expenses as well as the cost of repatriation.

When foreign employee arrives in Algeria, they should apply for a residency permit that will allow them to work and live in the country.

Benefits to the Employee in Algeria

Algerian Statutory Benefits

Employees have the right to various benefits as mandated by law and collective agreements. These benefits include retirement pensions, annual leave, sick leave, maternity leave, paternity leave, special leave, etc.

Public Holidays Recognized by Algeria in 2024

Occasion Date
1 New Year’s Day January 1
2 Amazigh New Year January 12
3 Eid al-Fitr April 10
4 Eid al-Fitr Holiday April 11
5 Labour Day May 1
6 Eid al-Adha June 16
7 Eid al-Adha Holiday June 17
8 Independence Day July 5
9 Islamic New Year July 7
10 Ashura July 16
11 Prophet Muhammad’s Birthday September 15
12 Revolution Day November 1

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